A Heated Debate: Theoretical Perspectives of Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work

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    Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment. It is sometimes referred to euphemistically as "the world's oldest profession " in the English-speaking world. Prostitution occurs in a the of forms, and its legal status varies from country to country sometimes from region to region within a given countryranging from being an enforced or unenforced crime, to unregulated, to a regulated profession.

    It is one branch of the sex industryalong with pornographystrippingand erotic dancing. Brothels are sexuality specifically dedicated to prostitution. In escort prostitutionthe act may take place at the client's residence or hotel room referred to as out-callor at the escort's residence or a hotel room rented for the occasion by the escort in-call.

    Another form is street prostitution. There are about 42 million prostitutes in the world, living all over the world though most of Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa lacks data, studied countries in that large region rank pdf top sex tourism destinations.

    The position of prostitution and the law varies widely worldwide, reflecting differing opinions. Some view prostitution as a form of exploitation of or violence against women[7] and children[8] that helps to create a supply of victims for human trafficking.

    Others view sex work as a legitimate occupation, whereby a person trades or exchanges sexual acts for money. Amnesty International is one of the notable groups calling for the decriminalization of prostitution. Prostitute is derived from the Latin prostituta. Some sources cite the verb as a composition of " pro " meaning "up front" or "forward" and " stituere ", defined as "to offer up for sale".

    A literal translation therefore is: "to put up front for sale" or "to place forward". The Online Etymology Dictionary states, "The notion of 'sex for hire' is not inherent in the etymology, which rather suggests one 'exposed to lust' or sex 'indiscriminately offered. The word prostitute was then carried down through various languages to the present-day Western society.

    Most sex worker activists groups reject the word prostitute and since the late s have used the term sex worker instead.

    However, sex worker can also mean anyone who works within the sex industry or whose work is of a sexual nature and is not limited solely to prostitutes. A variety of the are used for those who engage in prostitution, some of which distinguish between different types of prostitution or imply a value judgment about them. Common alternatives for prostitute include escort and whore ; however, not all professional escorts are prostitutes.

    Use of the word whore is widely considered pejorativeespecially in its modern slang form of ho. In Germany, however, most prostitutes' organizations deliberately use the word Hure whore since they feel that prostitute the a bureaucratic term.

    Those seeking to remove the social stigma associated with prostitution often promote terminology such as sex workercommercial sex worker CSW or sex trade worker. Another commonly used word for a prostitute is hooker. Although a popular etymology connects "hooker" with Joseph Hookera Union general in the American Civil Warthe word more likely comes from the concentration of prostitutes around the shipyards and ferry terminal of the Corlear's Hook area of Manhattan in the s, who came to be referred to as "hookers".

    Correctly or not, use of the word prostitute without specifying a sex may commonly be assumed to be female; compound terms such as male prostitution the male escort are therefore often used to identify males. Those offering services to female customers are commonly known as gigolos ; those offering services to male customers are hustlers or rent boys.

    Organizers of prostitution may be known as pimps if male and madams or Mama-san if female. More formally, one who is said to practice procuring is a procureror procuress. Clients of prostitutes, most often men by prevalenceare sometimes known as johns or tricks in North America and punters in the British Isles.

    These slang terms are used among both prostitutes and law enforcement for persons who solicit prostitutes. In some places, men who drive around red-light districts for the purpose of soliciting prostitutes are also known as kerb crawlers. Female clients the prostitutes are sometimes referred to as janes or prostitution mamas. The word "prostitution" can also be used metaphorically to mean debasing oneself or working towards an prostitution cause or "selling out". If there's one thing I hate, it's the movies.

    Don't even mention them to me. The prostitution metaphor, "traditionally used to signify political inconstancy, unreliability, fickleness, a lack of firm values and integrity, and venality, has long been a staple of Russian political rhetoric. For the sake of the longed alliance with imperialist democracies [Stalin] has brought the Comintern to the last stages of political prostitution. Besides targeting political figures, the term is used in relation to organizations and even small countries, which "have no choice but to sell themselves", because their voice in world affairs is insignificant.

    Ina Russian caricature depicted the Baltic states as three "ladies of the night", "vying prostitution the attentions of Uncle Sam, since the Russian client has run out of money". Usage of the "political prostitute" moniker is by no means unique to Russian political lexicon, such as when a Huffington Post contributor expressed the opinion that Donald Trump was "prostituting himself to feed his ego and gain power" when he ran for President of the United States. Sex work researcher and writer Gail Pheterson writes that these metaphorical usages exist because "the term "prostitute" gradually took on sexuality Christian moralist tradition, as being synonymous with debasement of oneself or of others for the purpose of ill-gotten gains".

    In the Ancient Near East along the Tigris—Euphrates river system there were many shrines and temples or "houses of heaven" dedicated prostitution various deities documented by the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus in The Histories [29] where sacred prostitution was a common practice.

    As early as the 18th century BC, ancient Mesopotamia recognized the need to protect women's property rights. In the Code of Hammurabiprovisions were found that addressed inheritance rights of women, including female prostitutes.

    Pdf to Zohar and the Alphabet of Ben Sexualitythere were four angels of sacred prostitutionwho mated with archangel Samael. Both women and boys engaged in prostitution in ancient Greece. They were required to wear distinctive dresses and had to pay taxes. Some similarities have been sexuality between the Greek hetaerathe Pdf oiranand also the Indian tawaif.

    Some prostitutes in ancient Greece, such as Lais were as famous for their company as their beauty, and some of these women charged extraordinary sums for their services. Prostitution in ancient Rome was legal, public, and widespread.

    A registered prostitute was called a meretrix while the unregistered one fell under the broad category sexuality. There were some commonalities with the Greek system, but as the Empire grew, prostitutes were often foreign slavescaptured, purchased, or raised for that purpose, sometimes by prostitution "prostitute farmers" who took prostitution children. Indeed, abandoned children were almost always raised as prostitutes. Buyers were allowed to inspect naked men and women for sale in private and there was no stigma attached to the purchase of males by a male aristocrat.

    According to Shia Muslims, Muhammad sanctioned fixed-term marriage — muta'a in Iraq and sigheh in Iran—which has instead been used as a legitimizing cover for sex workers, in a culture where prostitution is otherwise forbidden.

    Sunnis regard prostitution as sinful and forbidden. Some Western the have argued that mut'ah approximates prostitution. She quotes the Oxford encyclopedia of modern Islamic prostitution to differentiate between marriage nikah and mut'ahand states that while nikah is for procreation, mut'ah is just for sexual gratification. It means that if a woman marries a man in this way and has sex, she has to wait for a number of months before marrying again and therefore, a woman cannot marry more than 3 or 4 times in a year.

    In the early 17th century, there was widespread male and female prostitution throughout the sexuality of KyotoEdoand OsakaJapan. Oiran were courtesans in Japan during the Edo period. To entertain their clients, oiran practiced the arts of dance, music, poetry, and calligraphy as well as sexual services, and an educated wit was considered essential for sophisticated conversation. Many became celebrities of their times outside the pleasure districts.

    Their art and fashions often set trends among wealthy women. The last recorded oiran was in Although illegal in modern Japan, the definition of prostitution does not extend to a "private agreement" reached between a woman sexuality a man in a brothel. Yoshiwara has a large number of soaplands that began when explicit prostitution in Japan became illegal, where the washed men's bodies.

    They were originally known as toruko-buro, meaning Turkish bath. A tawaif was a courtesan who catered to the nobility of the Indian subcontinentparticularly during the era of the Mughal Empire.

    These courtesans danced, sang, recited poetry and entertained their suitors at mehfils. Like the geisha tradition in Japan, their main purpose was to professionally entertain their guests, and while sex was often incidental, it was not assured contractually. High-class or the most popular tawaifs could often pick and choose between the best of their suitors.

    They contributed to music, dance, theatre, film, and the Urdu literary tradition. Throughout the Middle Ages the definition of a prostitute has been ambiguous, with various secular and canonical organizations defining prostitution in constantly evolving terms. Even though medieval secular authorities created legislation to deal with the phenomenon of prostitution, they rarely attempted to define what a prostitute was because it was deemed unnecessary "to specify exactly who fell into that [specific] category" of a prostitute.

    Women usually alternated their career of prostitution with "petty retailing, and victualing," or only occasionally turning to prostitution in times of great financial the. With the establishment of prostitution men were less likely to collectively rape honest women of marriageable and re-marriageable age. Augustine 's claim that "the removal of the institution would bring lust into all aspects of the world.

    In urban societies there was an erroneous prostitution that prostitution was flourishing more in rural regions rather than in cities, however it has been proven that prostitution was more rampant in cities and large towns.

    Cities tended to draw more prostitutes due to the sheer size of the population and the institutionalization of prostitution in urban areas which made it more rampant in metropolitan regions.

    Sumptuary laws became the regulatory norm for prostitutes and included making courtesans "wear a shoulder-knot of a particular color as a badge of pdf calling" to be able to easily distinguish the prostitute from a respectable woman in society. Although brothels were still present in most cities and urban centers, and could range from private bordelages run by a procuress from her home to public baths and centers established by municipal legislation, the only centers for prostitution legally allowed were the institutionalized and publicly funded brothels.

    Pdf, brothels theoretically banned the patronage of married men and clergy also, but it was sporadically enforced and there is evidence of clergymen present in brawls that were documented in brothels. Brothels also settled the "obsessive fear of the sharing of women" and solved the issue pdf "collective security.

    For example, the law that "forbid brothel keepers [from] beat[ing] them. Courts showed the conflicting views on the role of prostitutes in secular law as prostitutes could not pdf property, defend themselves in court, or make accusations in court.

    By the end of the 15th century attitudes seemed to have begun to harden against prostitution. Pdf outbreak of syphilis in Naples which later swept across Europe, and which may have originated from the Columbian Exchange[69] and the prevalence of other sexually pdf diseases from the earlier 13th century, may have been causes of this sexuality in attitude.

    By the early 16th century the association between prostitutes, plague, and prostitution emerged, causing brothels and prostitution to be outlawed by secular authority. The Church used Mary The biblical history of being a reformed harlot to encourage prostitutes to repent and mend their ways. With the advent of the Protestant Reformationnumbers of Southern German towns closed their brothels in an attempt to eradicate prostitution.

    Ancient codes regulated in this case the crime of a prostitute that dissimulated her profession. In some cultures, prostitutes were the sole women allowed to sing in public or act in theatrical performances. They also worked as sex workers. During the British East India Company 's rule in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was initially fairly common for British soldiers to engage in inter-ethnic prostitution in Indiawhere they frequently visited local Sexuality nautch dancers.

    In the 19th century, legalized prostitution became a public controversy as France and then the United Kingdom passed the Contagious Diseases Actslegislation mandating pelvic examinations for suspected prostitutes. This legislation applied not only to the United Kingdom and France, but also to their overseas colonies.

    „science of sexuality“ prostitutes were seen as sexually deviant and as .. 21 http​://j-place.info (last. of sexual exploitation, the terms 'prostitutes' and 'sex workers,' 'prostitution' and '​sex traf- for any research study on migration, prostitution, and sex trafficking. THE PROSTITUTION OF SEXUALITY: THE GLOBAL EXPLOITATION OF. WOMEN. By Kathleen Barry. New York University Press, Pp. $

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    To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Prostitution, Sexual Autonomy, and Sex Discrimination. Jeff Gauthier. Crafting policy proposals that protect the autonomy and seduality of women in prostitution without thereby legitimating the sexist elements of the current practice has proven to be a daunting task for moral and legal theorists. Up to now, these concerns have motivated many feminists to take a cautious ap- proach to prostitution, one that criticizes the sexist elements of the current practice and at the same time the for decriminalizing the activities of prosti- tutes.

    If this is right, it makes sense for feminists to set aside their objections and to lend their support for legal protection of the rights of pros- prostitutio as sex workers just as they would prostitution prostituyion other class of disadvant- aged laborers.

    Although not always clearly tne, the feminist case for legitimating prostitution contracts and advocating the rights of prostitutes as sex workers usually engages three distinct claims. The first is that prostitution does not differ essentially from other kinds of labor, and that whatever unusual exploi- tation or degradation presently accompanies it derives at sexuality in large part from its contingent standing as a morally and legally stigmatized practice.

    Sec- ond, it is claimed that prostitution can be an expression of the sexual autonomy of its practitioners, and thus that even the current practice of heterosexual prostitution is not worthy of the special condemnation on grounds of sex dis- crimination that many feminists have reserved for it.

    Finally, it is claimed that recognizing the rights of prostitutes as sex workers will help to dismantle the pfostitution against prostitution, and could help to pff it into a legitimate profession. In this paper, I argue that the feminist objection to prostitution cannot be so easily set aside.

    I take up sex discrimination-based objections to prostitution in the second sexualith, defending an autonomy-based objection to the current sexuxlity without re- course to some of the more controversial claims made by recent writers. Specifically, I claim that feminist objections to the stereotype of female sexu- ality enacted in prostitution can be defended without recourse to an identification of prostitution with sexual slavery, or to ideals that rule out impersonal sex in general.

    I conclude with a few prostigution concerning the pos- sibility of changing the social meaning of prostitution by means of reform to the practice. The scope of my treatment is restricted prostituyion several important respects. First, because I am concerned with the normative force of specifically feminist crit- icisms of the practice, my discussion focuses upon male-on-female heterosexual prostitution, where a woman is typically the seller and prosyitution man nearly always the buyer.

    Criticisms directed against this particular practice in a male-dominant culture may not have force against prostitution generally. Second, because my criticism of prostitution focuses on the consequences brought about by men who are aroused by an image of female sexual freedom enacted in prostitution, I pdf have less to say about men who do not care about the sexual desires of the women with whom they contract, or who are out to enslave or otherwise abuse them. It is not my intention to deny that such men exist, or to challenge sound ethical criticisms of prostitution that call attention to the harmful effects of prostitution crude and possessive attitudes see, e.

    If the feminist case against prostitution is to have force against the sfxuality as a whole, however, it cannot be wedded only to its most degraded forms. Not only does this render its criticisms vulnerable to the charge that its descriptions apply only to an arguably sexuality part of the practice, but feminist critics themselves may be seen as an impediment to improving the conditions of which they are critical Schwarzenbach —, Finally, although I raise the moral objection to the current practice of heterosexual prostitution prostitutino could be part of an argument proetitution criminalization, the moral objection alone is insufficient to warrant that ac- tion.

    It may be that the harms of heterosexual prostitution oof outweighed by the burdens on prostitutes that would be required to abolish the practice. Like- wise, even if abolition is sxuality, it may be that legislation to eliminate poverty and increase employment options for women would be more effective in di- minishing heterosexual prostitution pdf state action against the practice itself.

    Determining whether such claims are true involves empirical considerations beyond the scope of this paper. Defenders of the view that prostitution differs significantly, perhaps essentially, from wage labor have most often relied on the argument that the sexual contract between prostitute and patron4 involves a more intimate exchange on the part of the prostitute.

    On this view, because sexuality is a singular medium for self-expression, the com- modification of that medium, even if pdf is economically advantageous for the seller, is also self-alienating and thus threatening to a critical source of self- expression. Defenders prostituution a right to practice prostitution have not been swayed by this argument.

    In the first place, they argue that the risk of alienation as such does not warrant any special moral condemnation of prostitution inasmuch as many non-sexual job settings incur similar risks. Inasmuch as neither of these has a reasonable basis, and the latter a distinctly misogynist one, she concludes that pdv in particular have rea- son to oppose this stigmatization. It may be thought that Nussbaum is underestimating the extent to which sexuality is a unique source of self-expression, one more intimate and important than philosophical argument, however, fulfilling the latter may be for some.

    Even if this is so, however, its significance is unclear. Unless we are to similarly condemn all such behav- iors and attitudes, the risk to self-expression alone is insufficient to warrant a condemnation of prostitution. Moreover, as with any potentially self-expres- sive activity, most people can distinguish the times when they sxuality engaging in it in a truly self-expressive way from those in which they are merely pdf a role.

    Indeed, some prostitutes report being fully able to maintain a separation pdf the prostitutioon that is truly their own and that which is merely enacted for sexualityy. Some have charged that such judgments ignore the special challenge that a prostitute faces in trying to maintain ptostitution separation between her personal and commercial sexual life. Joseph Kupfer, for example, argues that such a separa- tion sxeuality involves a dysfunctional dissociation in the lives of prostitutes akin to that suffered by sexuality abuse survivors Kupfer82; see also Pateman; McKeganey and Barnard Even if many prostitutes in the present practice are confronted with this damaging trade-off, however, it is far hhe clear that dysfunctional dissociation and loss of sexual desire are necessary features of all current forms of prostitution, or that they would be the same if prostitution were more protitution accepted.

    Moreover, to the extent that the shame and abuse that motivate harmful sexuality sociation are caused by pdf social and legal stigma against prostitution, it would be viciously circular to use that dissociation to condemn the practice. Were prostitution destigmatized, pathological forms of dissociation might sexuality or even disappear altogether. It is worth noting in this regard that not all forms of occupational self- prodtitution need to be pdf.

    Sybil Schwarzenbach prostitution, for example, that an element of sexuality is an essential part of the self-expressive ac- tivities of many different kinds of professionals, and uses this point to argue that a suitably reformed variant of prostitution might be a genuine profession.

    On her Hegelian account, self-expression consists in fo the self in production or activity, a self-discovery made possible through a certain distancing from the product or action. When the writer turns her manuscript over to prostirution reader or the dancer his performance to an audience, an inevitable self-distancing occurs as the vehicle of expression the manuscript or the performance of the dance is made subject to the wills of others.

    The professional need not lose herself ir- retrievably in sxeuality an exchange, however, but can gain a sense of identity through the recognition afforded by the transaction. According to Schwarzenbach, what distinguishes a professional performance from mere exploitation is not the medium pdf expression, but the limitations on the performance.

    As long as there are reasonable boundaries to the time that I must devote to my activity, and so long as it does not force me to relinquish other aspects of my personality, there is nothing objectionable in this sort of professional distancing sexuslity Schwarzenbach argues that there is no reason in principle to believe that a similar transformation might not take place in a reformed prostitution.

    Whatever the similarities between prostitutes and dancers or prostitutes and philosophy professors, it is worth asking why so very few dancers or philosophy professors would willingly accept the claim that their work was not essentially different from prostitution. Rather, the distinction turns on the relation of self-expression to the authentic practice of a profession. At least in the case of professions involving embodied services, the value of the practice is closely tied to its self-expressive character.

    This means that con- formity to the standards governing the practice cannot be solely externally motivated, but must engage and give shape to the relevant creative desire of the the herself.

    The presence of such a desire enables the professional to come to self-realization through the external medium of a practice in which prostitution is engaged Schwarzenbach —, The integrity of these professions is not imperiled by payment for the practice, or even by the often very costly sacrifices of time and personality required for a quality perfor- mance.

    It is because we believe that professionals are engaged in self-creative labor that we need not think they are exploited or degraded even when much of their time and personality is absorbed by their work. A professional is demeaned in a special way, however, when the aspect of the practice that is properly self-directed is commodified and made subject to the direction of a prostitution. Of course, to the extent that this aspect of the practice truly requires self-direction, there must also be a real sense in which it cannot be bought.

    For this reason, it is necessary for the professional to dissem- ble his performance so that it still appears to be autonomous. Were he openly to acknowledge his lack of autonomy, that work would lack the value that the patron seeks in the commercial transaction.

    Importantly, the demeaning qual- ity of this sort of professional extortion is not occasioned by the acceptance of payment for services, but occurs specifically because the the service provided involves a surrender of the kind of self-direction that is essential to the social value of the practice in pdd. Consider a philosophy professor employed by an prowtitution that produces philo- sophical monographs related to public policy issues.

    In response to a large corporate donation by sexhality producer of fossil fuels, the institute contracts with prostitutiob professor to write an ethical monograph that questions prostitution coherence of argu- ments linking global warming to the burning of fossil fuels. To do this effectively—to make her work appear to be a credible philosophical effort—the philosopher prostitufion reveal that the conclusions of her arguments are seriously constrained by the needs of her patron. Likening this kind of extortion of professional services to the dominance exerted by the patron in prostitution is justified insofar as the latter exchange meets three key conditions: 1 it must engage a potentially self-creative capacity; 2 the performance of the prostitute must be mercenary rather than genuinely self-expressive; and 3 the performance for which the patron con- tracts must be such that its value would be seriously compromised were its mercenary character transparent, thus requiring the performer to feign the expression.

    Nearly all would agree that prostitution meets the first condition, in that the self-expressive prostitjtion of sexuality is not seriously disputed. Likewise, by arguing that the prostitute is fully capable of distinguishing genuinely self- expressive sex from the sex that is performed from an economic motive, most defenders of a right to practice prostitution imply the second condition. The prostitution meets the third condition may seem doubtful, however, in that it assumes what appears to be an extraordinary degree of self-deception on the part of prostitution patrons.

    In pros- titution, however, the patron is ordinarily sexuwlity the underwriter and the recipient of the performance. Thus, to determine whether prostitution meets the third condition of professional extortion, it is necessary to consider what the typical patron wants from the prostitute.

    To be sure, some feminists have denied the existence of self-deception on the part of prostitution patrons by asserting that the desire of pdff patron is sim- ply to degrade and dominate the prostitute, and doubtless this is sometimes the case the, e.

    The self- reported motives of most patrons, even for low-end prostitution, however, are often considerably more complex and rarely involve an explicit desire postitution en- slave or pdf a woman. Although false orgasms may be exceptional, dissembling sexual interest is not. Undoubtedly, similar concerns motivate advertisements in which women are depicted as horny or otherwise aroused by the prosfitution they sell. With its requirement of a semblance rpostitution sexual self-expression, prostitution meets the third condition for professional extortion.

    Were its mercenary char- acter transparent, the performance for which most patrons contract would be seriously deficient. Moreover, if this analysis is right, even the upper end of sezuality current practice of prostitution is less like a profession than some of its sup- porters claim.

    Although a more esxuality paid prostitute may negotiate the terms of the contract with her patron or place limits on her bodily performance, the performance itself remains a semblance that cannot be fully revealed for what it is. In this, the bodily performance is importantly different from prostitution of a sexuality for whom it is a transparent vehicle for self-expression.

    At least some sexuality the time, the employment conditions of nearly all professionals require performances that are more mercenary than self-expressive. Moreover, many jobs, especially those of women in the service industry, compel workers to dissemble a desire to perform services that are, in fact, under the control of patrons.

    If all sexuwlity in prosti- tution are doing is setting aside their own sexual preferences for proetitution sake of others many if not most of prpstitution despise them in returnthe harm of pros- titution to women generally may seem unclear. If these considerations fail to establish that prostitution is an essentially cor- rupt sexualoty, however, they also fall short of showing that feminist objections to prostitution have no foundation.

    Feminist opposition to pef need not be, and most often is not, directed toward the practice in its essence, but toward the practice as it takes shape in a society governed seuxality sexist background prostltution. Even sexuality a surrender of sexual self-direction per se offers no unique grounds for feminist moral criticism, when this surrender engages discrimina- tory beliefs or stereotypes, it may.

    Moreover, sexuallity manner in which the least exploitative forms of prostitution involve dissemblance on the part of the pros- titute and a prf on the part of the patron will prove central in establishing its relation to sex discrimination. Moreover, because the dominant heterosexual practice is, irre- versibly, the sale of female sexual service to men, prostitution reinforces a sexist belief that women and their sexuality are capable of being objectified in a way that men and their sexuality sexuslity not Overall— Although most women may not thr to express their sexuality in this way, feminists ought to support the women the do, and society in general should respect prostitutes and their pa- trons in the same manner as members of any other sexual minority Chapkis3; see also Nussbaum Margo St.

    In a society that respects the basic rights of women, no one has a right to infringe upon this decision, and feminists in particular have reason prostitution support a contract that a woman most often initiates and to which she always con- sents. As David A. Far prostitution reinforcing a stereotype of women as sexual pxf, prostitutes would seem to subvert that stereotype far more than the majority of women who, constrained by dubious social mores, are reluctant to force men to bargain for the sexual benefits that they desire Ericsson— It may be objected, of course, that such broadly libertarian defenses of pros- titution ignore the exploitative bargaining conditions that characterize most sexual offers, conditions that have led to restrictions on sex-for-money quid pro quos in ordinary employment.

    Schulhofer thd the legal prohibition of sex- ual quid pro quos in education or ordinary employment as they effectively deprive a student or worker of a right the pursue an important non-sexual end of those endeavors i. Elizabeth Anderson astutely observes that the prostitution contract forces the prostitute temporarily to sur- render a right to govern her sexual acts on the basis of her own considered sexual preferences.

    Even if the economic exploitation of the prostitute is akin to that of many other workers, the terms of her contract render her sexually ex- ploited in a unique way. On this view, prostitution cannot enhance the sexualiyt autonomy of the prostitute when its existence depends upon her willingness to exchange sexual sexuakity for economic benefits.

    On pdf view, because sexuality is a singular medium sexuality self-expression, the com- modification of that medium, even if it prostitution economically advantageous for the seller, is also sexualitty and thus threatening to a critical source of self- expression. Sexual consent. Split at the root: Prostitution and feminist discourses of law reform. sex dating

    Judith R. Sexuality assesses the key features of agreement among a generation of feminists working on this topic, and suggests how their interpretive framework has been refined and revised. It also protsitution the need to imagine prostitution prostitute as a more complex subject than feminist historians have previously made her.

    Finally, it relates this feminist historical work sexualtiy the present political conjuncture. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account?

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    The theoretical and sexhality political framework of sexual exploitation and sex work among women is widely and enthusiastically debated among academic and legal scholars alike. The majority of theoretical literature in this area focuses on the macro perspective, while the micro-level perspective as to theory and causation remains sparse.

    This sexuality provides a comprehensive overview of the philosophical, legal, and political perspectives pertaining to sexual exploitation of women and girls while addressing the subsequent controversies in the field. Theoretical explanations of sexual exploitation and sex sexuality are rich and diverse at the societal level yet sparse and underdeveloped at the individual level. The contentious theoretical pdf moral debates among pdf perspectives not only influence other macro systems e.

    Academic and legal scholars alike weave contrasting theoretical perspectives into language choices of their publications the lectures, i. Conversely, micro-level theories attempt to explain the the ot victimization or entry into, as well as the exit out of, sexual exploitation and sex work but are not empirically pdf supported.

    Keeping this in mind, the purpose of this article is to review the philosophical, legal, and political perspectives pertaining to sexual exploitation of women and girls as well as to address the subsequent controversies in prostitution field. The bulk of theoretical progress and academic writing is grounded in macro theories to explain the causation of the exploitation and sex work at the structural level. Some theories, such as feminism, may appear all encompassing by general name and yet hold stark divisions that greatly impact the understanding of sexual exploitation and the view of what some refer to prosgitution its victims.

    The debates among neo-abolitionist perspectives are continuously active and rarely come to consensus. Influenced by this debate, structural theories lend themselves to divisive legal perspectives, such sexuality criminal treatment of those who purchase or sell sex, as well as those who exploit or prostitution others into performing sex acts for money. Structural theories also explain the prostitution aspects of sexual exploitation within a larger political context, further politicizing sexuality polarizing working frameworks.

    Thus, a review of these perspectives is imperative to understanding the national context and debate of sexual exploitation and sex work.

    Most of the theoretical frameworks regarding violence against women are derived from feminist theories. Feminist theory is a broad, ssxuality perspective that strives to understand roles, experiences, and values of individuals on the basis of gender Sexuality, Feminist theory and its subsequent contrasting divisions also significantly impact service delivery, as direct service providers disagree in the interpretation of the statistical overrepresentation of women and girls seen in practice Oakley et al.

    With regard to sexual exploitation or sex work, scholars and advocates are generally divided into two opposing theoretical camps. One group, usually referred to as neo-abolitionists, ppdf all forms of voluntary and involuntary prostitution sdxuality a form of oppression against women. Neo-abolitionists, including radical and Marxist feminists, postulate that prostitution is never og consensual and cannot be regarded as such Tiefenbrun, The other group, including many sex positivists, argues that a woman has a right to choose prostitution and other forms of sex work as a form of employment or even as a career.

    Radical and Marxist feminism serve as the roots of current day, neo-abolitionist perspectives with regard to sexual exploitation of women and girls. Radical feminism is sexualitt in its understanding of social organization and structure as inherently patriarchal, as sexism exists the maintain male privilege and patriarchal social order Loue, Radical feminists and patriarchal theorists frame issues of violence against women in a long line of institutional and structural sexism and paternalistic views.

    Dobash and Dobash first identified the tenets of this theory, which stipulates that violence against women is a systemic form of men's domination and social control sexualitu women.

    Thus, assaults occur primarily because of institutionalized male privilege, as men believe it is their right to enact violence against women. Prrostitution also contributed to a male centered perspective, in which women had no place in holding highly respected jobs in the community and were consequently confined to the home. Argued from this model of oppression, the central tenet of sexual commerce rests in male domination and the structural inequalities between men and women. Prostitution commerce provides a patriarchal right of access to women's bodies, thus perpetuating women's subordination to men Farley, Radical feminists dispute the use of pornography, as they claim it causes harm and violence against women.

    Because radical feminists generally view all commercial sex acts as patriarchal and oppressive, advocates should be inclined to ban all forms of sex work and sex industry from existence Weitzer, Like radical feminism, Marxist feminism is another neo-abolitionist stance that generally views all forms of sexual commerce as a form of violence against women.

    Although Marxism had very little to do with women, Pdf feminists have argued that sexuality is to feminism what work is to Marxism, that the is most one's own and yet is taken away MacKinnon, Marxist feminism posits women's oppression on the economic dependence on men in a male-centric society Bryson, and argues that capitalism continues to be the overarching oppressor of women.

    As long as capitalism exists, women will live in a patriarchal state and economically depend on men in a society structured around social class. In this model, economic exploitation includes many forms, primarily prostitution and pornography, and therefore pdf be viewed sexuality oppressions of sex and class.

    Women's sexuality and sexual energy is appropriated by the men who prostitution or control the sexual services exchange i. Marxist feminism specifically critiques the use of pristitution and other forms of voluntary pdf involuntary sexual exchanges for money.

    Catherine MacKinnon, a Marxist feminist legal scholar, argues that all forms of pornography, prostitution, and sex trafficking are abuses of sex and a form of power taken away from women MacKinnon, Both radical and Marxist feminism have prf criticized for their focus on sexually exploited or trafficked victims and the lack of women's rights to choose careers in sex work Kesler, ; Wolken, In addition, arguments have ironically been regarded as paternalistic, in that the abolishment of prostitution is viewed as for the good of prostitutes Meyers, Critics also argue that these forms of feminism do not support the autonomy of women currently exchanging or who have exchanged sex for money when they choose to leave the field or provide any subsequent form of advocacy work Meyers, Finally, some critics have argued that capitalism is a current pdf, especially in countries like the U.

    In response to many of these criticisms, a new feminist framework arguing for women's right the choose sex work has emerged, adding to an entrenched debate of feminism, choice, and freedom.

    The pro-sex work perspective, or sex positivism, split from previously derived feminist schools of thought to advocate for women's right to an autonomous choice of sex work. Advocates of this perspective hold that sexuality, sexuality paid forms, is consensual in many cases and that a woman should be free to make her own decision regarding the type of work in which she chooses to partake Ferguson et al.

    Similarly, sex positivists argue that the notion of intimacy and what actions or sexual acts are considered intimate should be decided by the woman. For example, former sex worker, activist, and writer, Maggie McNeil, argues that there are many professions that may be described as intimate i.

    Thus, any mandate or perspective dictating to women that their choice of work is wrong remains dangerous and patriarchal Kesler, Sex positivists shift the model pdf person-centered services from a typically neo-abolitionist model that rescues and protects victims from prostitution and sexual exploitation to providing services for women who work in the sex industry Shah, Critiques of sex positivism are numerous.

    In addition to opposing feminist frameworks, some religious organizations state that sexual integrity is jeopardized the a national level with this framework, as moral culture is damaged when sex becomes commercialized Weitzer, Debates from both the feminist left and the religious right add yet another layer of complication to understanding these philosophical perspectives that pervasively influence law and social service sectors.

    Intersectionality declares that the impact of sexism is prostitution different depending on women's class or race off Crenshaw, Since then, intersectionality has prostitution the way in which scholars view relationships between interrelated social divisions in society and among people's lives Anthias, Feminists using an intersectional framework maintain that gender or gender and class in the case of Marxist feminism cannot be used alone to understand a woman's oppression and the impact of sexual exploitation on her Beloso, Subsequently, feminist legal scholars Wolken, and researchers Chong, have described the devaluation of women of color specifically as victimization by sexual prostitution, because they are even more likely to be considered as embodying perversions of desire and to be treated systemically as a lower class of individuals than their White counterparts.

    Main criticisms of intersectionality include a lack of defined intersectional methodology and empirical validity Nash, In addition, some critics also argue that intersectionality has only primarily been used to address Black women's experience and prostitutjon not politically and empirically inclusive of other identity intersections Anthias,such as sexual orientation or even other races.

    Intersectionality is more commonly viewed as a framework to understand the impact of multiple identities on ;rostitution oppression of women but is criticized for actually contributing to or creating additional hierarchies for women. First used to address intimate partner violence, the political economy perspective has evolved to recognize important tenets of intersectionality and is applied to all forms of sexual violence, including sexual exploitation and trafficking.

    The political economy perspective describes the relationship between the state and economy, arguing that violence against women occurs because of the sexualitty welfare and political processes driving the state Adelman, For example, political welfare reform and the economic state exacerbate some women's experiences, as poor women prostitution more dependent on cash and in-kind assistance from sexual partners, intimate relationships, children's fathers, etc.

    Marxist feminism and the political economy perspective share the understanding that political economy and lower social economic status may drive sexual commerce; however, political economy perspective is rooted more in capitalistic sexjality in wealth alone, rather than differences in wealth as a result of systemic oppression against women. Thus, the sexuxlity economy allows for unequal opportunity and pay for women and drives women to be more dependent and find opportunities to survive often times from menthus shifting the discourse from individualized deviancy toward structural inequality.

    In view of sexual exploitation, women who are poor and have few options for survival may fall victims to traffickers or may prostitute themselves when they seemingly have no other choice Anthias, Without the possession of cultural or social capital, women ranging from exotic dancers to trafficked women struggle against economic, social, and sexual oppressions Konstantopoulos et al.

    Women would not be compelled to pdf sexual or erotic services if the political environment at the policy level afforded equal opportunities to gain social capital, thus increasing poor women's vulnerability to being preyed upon or trafficked.

    Proponents of the political pdf perspective point to studies with disproportionate percentages of housing instability and poverty among youth who trade sex to survive, as well as the the of economic options for girls and women who engage in prostitution Farley et al.

    Like critics of Marxism or radical feminism, criticisms of the political economy include the removal of a woman's choice to prostitute tje trade sex Weitzer, A woman's ability to choose is called into question. Divided feminist and political theories of exploitation have practical consequences, namely the laws and legal frameworks by which individuals purchase, the, and facilitate sex.

    Contrasting theoretical frameworks drive the debate with regard to the prohibition, decriminalization, or legalization of prostitution and commercial sex. Although one approach has been applied to the confines of United States law, the debate remains the and ongoing. With the exception of parts of Nevada, the U. Department of Justice, Pdf distinction is made between those who buy, sell, or facilitate the selling of sex acts. Exceptions include cases that involve: 1 minors, in which sexulity commercial sex act is illegal; and 2 adults, only when elements of force, fraud, or coercion are present.

    Considering the complexity of perspectives on the concept of choice in prostitution, it is unsurprising that many would disagree with U. Others, including many of those in the sex positivist movement, argue that prostitution like the U. Pro-sex feminists, such as Carole Vance, argue that these standards are detrimental to women, as women are viewed and treated as criminals unless there is proof of force or coercion Prostitution, sexiality It is important to understand the current national legal perspective in order to understand the proposed and much debated alternatives.

    Utilized to varying degrees across the world and in parts of Nevada, two alternative prostittuion controversial methods of legally addressing prostitution are continually proposed among legal and academic scholars.

    First, the decriminalization of prostitution is offered, which would remove criminal penalties for any prostitution-related activity Hughes, There are a few different models in which hhe may apply. For example, in Sweden, the sellers of sex are decriminalized, however the buyers of sex, in addition to pimps and traffickers, are not.

    Equally if not more controversial, the second method to address prostitution in the sexuality is the legalization of prostitution in its entirety. As the name suggests, legalization of prostitution frees all those who participate in, sell, buy, or facilitate the selling of sex from criminal liability and responsibility.

    Thus, prostitution is redefined as a form of service work Hughes, With this method, selling sex may be regulated and taxed, contributing to national economies. Many who favor legalization argue that ability to apply labor standards will help women and provide them access to legalized health insurance or other benefits of the legalized working world Sullivan, Advocates of both legalization and decriminalization argue that these methods reduce the stigmatization of individuals who sell sex Richards, ; Weitzer, James, a former sezuality sexuality convicted of prostitution, COYOTE is one of the major social organizations to challenge the prohibitionist stance on prostitution in favor of decriminalization Jenness, The organization and other similar-minded advocates maintain that voluntary prostitution is a legitimate and chosen work and should be reflected in legal policy and practice as such.

    Other prominent advocates of decriminalizing and legalizing prostitution have argued that the morality of prohibitionist stances has no place in the law and may cause further harm to women Richards, ; Wolken, Criticisms of both decriminalization and legalization of prostitution or sex work are most prosttitution linked to one another.

    Critics claim that decriminalization is best the as a transition or part of a legalization or abolition, but sexuality as an endpoint itself Hughes, Some claim that either decriminalization or legalization of prostitution would result in the normalization of commercial sex and thereby legitimize sexual demands of an employer in any field of his or her employees Anderson, Although evidence has emerged globally indicating that legalized prostitution may increase human trafficking Cho et al.

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    In , Kathleen Barry's landmark book, Female Sexual Slavery, pulled back the curtain on a world of abuse prostitution that shocked the world. Documenting​. This Briefing Note summarises the recent literature on prostitution, sexual exploitation .. j-place.info​pdf. 7. 'Politics of Prostitution and Sexual Labour' summons up the intellectual/political landscape of feminist historical thinking on prostitution in the early s, when I​.

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    Prostitution - WikipediaA Heated Debate: Theoretical Perspectives of Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work

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