Spermine in semen of male sea lamprey acts as a sex pheromone

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    All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Underlying data from the main and supporting figures can be found in S1 Data. The antisense probe sequence of taar is semen in GenBank accession number MH Semen is fundamental for sexual reproduction. Semenii non-sperm part of ejaculated semen, or seminal plasma, facilitates the delivery of sperm to the eggs.

    The seminal plasma of some species with internal fertilization contains anti-aphrodisiac molecules that deter promiscuity in post-copulatory females, conferring fitness benefits to the ejaculating male.

    By contrast, in some taxa with external fertilization such as fish, exposure to semen promotes spawning behaviors. However, no specific compounds in semen have been identified as aphrodisiac pheromones. We sought to identify a pheromone from the milt fish semen of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinusa jawless fish that spawns in lek-like aggregations in which each spermiating male defends a nest, and ovulatory females move from nest to nest to mate.

    We postulated that milt compounds sfmeni to ovulatory females the presence of spawning spermiating males. We determined that spermine, an odorous polyamine initially identified from human semen, is indeed a milt pheromone. We found spermine activated a trace amine-associated receptor TAAR -like receptor in the lamprey olfactory epithelium. A novel antagonist to that receptor nullified the attraction semenii ovulatory females to spermine.

    Our results elucidate a mechanism whereby a seminal plasma pheromone attracts ready-to-mate aemeni and implicates a possible conservation of the olfactory detection of semen from jawless vertebrates to humans. Milt pheromones may also have management implications for sea lamprey populations.

    Ejaculated semen contains sperm cells that are essential to fertilize eggs. The ejaculate confers reproductive advantages to males because the seminal plasma, the fluid compartment of semen, sejeni a myriad of molecules that alter the sexual attractiveness [ 1 ], physiology [ 23 ], and sexual behavior of post-copulatory females [ 4 ].

    For some animals with internal fertilization, ejaculate contains anti-aphrodisiac molecules that deter or inhibit other males from courting with copulated females to reduce sperm competition [ 15 ]. Seminal molecules may also cause the females to cease mating and start laying eggs without further mating [ 6 sex. Many of these seminal molecules have been shown to be female hormones, or mimics of hormones, that regulate the reproductive physiology and behaviors of females [ 6 ].

    Males gain reproductive advantages by investing in seminal molecules that suppress subsequent mating in already mated females [ 7 ].

    In addition to the well-known anti-aphrodisiac function of seminal plasma in some species with internal fertilization, seminal plasma appears to be an aphrodisiac in some species with external fertilization in which seminal compounds stimulate mating behaviors. The milt fish semen of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii induces a series of reproductive behaviors in adults with elevated levels of steroid hormones despite no physical interaction occurring between the sexes when spawning [ 8 ].

    In addition, female bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus increase egg deposition when exposed to milt [ 9 ]. The milt of these fishes likely contains pheromones semeni trigger the documented spawning behaviors.

    Evidence for this type of seminal pheromone remains limited to these 2 species. However, no specific molecules from semen have been identified with such a function, hampering a molecular understanding of how seminal plasma mediates reproductive behaviors. We hypothesize that male semeni lamprey, a basal vertebrate that spawns with sex mates in a lek-like system, release a milt-derived pheromone.

    During their spawning season, sexually mature male lampreys that express milt spermiating males congregate on riverine gravel patches. Each spermiating male builds a nest and releases a sex pheromone from its gills that attracts sexually mature female ovulatory sfx lampreys [ 1011 ]. In the spawning lek, each male defends a nest, while females move from nest to nest to spawn intermittently for approximately 1 week before mature adults die [ 1112 ].

    During that period, the gill-released sex pheromone alone is insufficient to attract and retain the females on the nest, but spawning pairs have been observed to remain together for an extended duration [ 11 ]. This indicates that additional factors contribute to the maintenance of seneni aggregations. Because males typically release milt frequently for a week, seminal molecules released along with sperm would be a reliable, localized signal for the presence of actively spawning males in the vicinity, likely within a mating aggregation.

    In this study, we discovered that spermine in sea lamprey milt acts as a specific semen-derived sex pheromone that promotes mating behaviors. This polyamine, initially sekeni as crystals in human semen by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in [ 13 ], evokes olfactory responses in teleost fish [ 1415 ] and possibly humans [ 16 ].

    We reasoned that emitted spermine reveals sperm availability and thus can serve as a signal that benefits males seeking multiple mating partners. Our data indicate that sea lamprey seminal plasma contains high levels of sex that stimulates the lamprey olfactory semeni and attracts ovulatory females at subpicomolar concentrations. We found that spermine activates a specific trace amine-associated receptor TAAR -like receptor TAARwhereas an antagonist to this receptor inhibits olfactory and female behavioral responses to spermine.

    We conclude that spermine is a male pheromone and postulate that TAAR plays a role in mediating those responses to spermine. Previous studies found that spermine see structure in the inset of Fig 1A is more abundant in semen than any other tissue or fluid [ 1718 ].

    In comparison, spermine was not detected in the mixture of expressed ovarian sdmeni and eggs from ovulatory females Fig 1A. Spermine was also not detected in appreciable quantities in water conditioned with either ovulatory females or spermiating males, indicating it is not likely released from gills, as is known to be the case for aemeni lamprey sex pheromones S1 Table ; limit of quantification of spermine from water samples: 0.

    Although spermine is a ubiquitous polyamine with wide-ranging cellular functions [ 131718 ], our results indicate that milt—in particular the seminal plasma—is the main source of waterborne spermine from sexually mature male sea lampreys.

    Inset Sx of spermine. The number above each trace is the logarithmic value of the molar concentration of each stimulant. The bar above the L -ARG trace on the semeni represents the duration of odorant treatment.

    E EOG traces of pre-spermiating male olfactory epithelia exposed to spermine. Underlying data are available in S1 Data. Spermine evoked concentration-dependent responses in adult sea lamprey olfactory epithelia Fig 1C—1Eas recorded with electro-olfactogram EOG. We decided to report the more conservative results from the paired t test approach as the spermine thresholds of detection.

    To directly test the pheromone function of spermine, we examined the effect of spermine on adult sea lamprey behavior in a two-choice maze assay supplied with natural stream water S2 Fig. Ovulatory females preferred the channel activated with milt when applied to produce a final spermine concentration in the maze of 2.

    A positive index value indicates attraction, and a negative index value indicates repulsion. Significance was evaluated using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Swx number in the parentheses indicates the number of test subjects spending more time in the experimental channel out of the total sample size.

    Milt was applied to produce a final spermine concentration of 1 2. The behavioral effect of spermine was maturation specific and sex specific. Our chemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral evidence demonstrates dex spermine is a sex pheromone that specifically attracts ovulatory females.

    Next, we sought to characterize the olfactory chemoreceptor s that detects spermine. We focused our search on TAARs, a family of receptors known to mediate olfactory responses to mono- and di-amines [ 2122 ] and to modify specific behaviors in vertebrates [ 21 sez, 23 ].

    The sea lamprey genome contains genes encoding 26 TAAR-like receptors [ 24 ]. We expressed these receptors in human embryonic kidney T Semeni cells, a modified HEK cell line that expresses the simian virus 40 SV40 large T antigen that efficiently amplifies the transcription vector with the receptor gene inserts, as described by Zhuang and colleagues [ 25 ] and measured the responses to spermine.

    This heterologous expression system has been used to express various G-protein-coupled receptors GPCRssex chemoreceptors from a variety of species. C TAAR targeted to HEKT cell membrane as shown by the immunostained Rho-tag antibody red for total bottom panel, with permeation using Triton X or membrane-bound top panel, without permeation expression. Receptors located on the cell surface appeared as red rings around the nucleus denoted with arrow. The nucleus was counterstained with DAPI blue.

    EGFP was used as the negative control to evaluate transfection efficiency green. D Representative olfactory receptor neurons expressing taar purplelabeled with a DIG-labeled antisense RNA probe in a cross-sectional view of the main olfactory epithelium of an adult female sea lamprey. The section was counterstained with Nuclear Fast Red. In situ hybridization results showed that taar transcripts were located in a sparse population of olfactory sensory neurons OSNs in adult sea lampreys Fig 3D and S5 Fig.

    The taar probe hybridized to mRNA seemeni a small subset of OSNs sex the lamellae in middle sections along the rostral-caudal axis of the main olfactory epithelium but were not contained to certain olfactory epithelial zones as positive staining was sparsely distributed along the dorsoventral and lateral axes.

    Labeled intact neurons showed a tall morphology [ 26 ], homologous to teleost ciliated OSNs [ 27 ], with the cell bodies situated deeper in the olfactory epithelium and long dendrites projecting towards the epithelial surface.

    In comparison, no labeling was observed either in intermediate OSNs, homologous to teleost microvillous OSNs, which have a characteristic plump cell body and an intermediate soma position, or in short OSNs, homologous to teleost crypt OSNs, which have a rounded, egg-shape and are situated in the most apical layer of the epithelium semebi 2627 ].

    These data demonstrate that TAAR located in the olfactory epithelium is a cognate receptor of spermine with a high level of specificity. Because genetic editing methods are not feasible in adult sea lamprey [ 28 ], we utilized pharmacologic tools to examine the role of TAAR in mediating the observed olfactory and behavioral responses to spermine in sea lampreys.

    We found that cyclen 1,4,7,tetraazacyclododecane; see structure in the inset of Fig 4B blocked the spermine-induced cAMP-stimulating activity. Cyclen appears to be a pure antagonist because it did not induce cAMP production when added alone Fig 4B. Our data indicate that cyclen is a potent and selective antagonist for TAAR A Cyclen treatment inhibited cAMP production induced by 0.

    The filled triangle represents cAMP production induced by 0. Inset Structure of cyclen 1,4,7,tetraazacyclododecane. Cyclen treatment also reduced olfactory responses to spermine in adult sea lampreys.

    The olfactory epithelium was exposed to cyclen for 5 minutes, and then the olfactory responses to cyclen mixed with various other stimuli—including spermine, L -arginine [ 29 ], 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate 3kPZSwhich is a male sea lamprey sex pheromone released through the gills [ 19 ], and spermidine, which is the immediate precursor of spermine biosynthesis [ 13 ]—were recorded.

    The difference in responses for each stimulus before gray and during white exposure of the naris to cyclen was evaluated with a paired semeeni test. The eex of cyclen was reversible because the attraction to spermine was rescued when cyclen application ceased.

    For the definition ssmeni the index of preference, see Materials and methods. EOG, electro-olfactogram; n. Likewise, cyclen nullified attraction of ovulatory females to spermine.

    As expected, cyclen did not alter the behavioral response of ovulatory females to the gill-released pheromone 3kPZS. Furthermore, inhibition of semeni behavioral response to spermine by cyclen was semeni. The modification of semeni electrophysiological and behavioral responses to spermine in lampreys exposed to cyclen is consistent with the cyclen-mediated inhibition of the cAMP responses to spermine in HEKT cells expressing TAAR, the only receptor of the 46 tested sex responds to spermine.

    In our final step to characterize a possible role of TAAR in mediating responses to spermine, we reasoned that another TAAR agonist, if found, should replicate the effects of spermine at the receptor, olfactory epithelia, and behavioral levels. As expected, nap-spermine induced EOG responses of magnitudes comparable to those induced by spermine Fig 6B. In summary, sex consistently nullified the receptor, semebi, and behavioral responses induced by spermine, whereas nap-spermine consistently induced responses that replicated those induced by spermine.

    These results, coupled with the lack of spermine-induced responses for 45 other sea lamprey sex chemoreceptors that we have tested, is consistent with a specific role for TAAR in mediating the pheromone function of spermine.

    Inset Structure of nap-spermine. Cyclen exposure conditions are the semen as in Fig 5A. E Adult sea lamprey behavioral responses to spermine and nap-spermine in a two-choice maze S2 Fig.

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows inseminated with fresh or frozen sex-sorted semen (SS) in. Women allergic to their partner's semen can be cured by treatments requiring frequent sex, a New York allergist says. Pregnant women with sex partners who live in or traveled to an area with risk of Zika has been detected in semen, vaginal fluids, saliva, urine, and breast milk.

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    A male honeybee mates with a queen in mid-air. The semen that a male transfers to a female degrades her vision — and with it her ability to mate with other males. Evolutionary theory predicts that a male should attempt to prevent queens from mating with other males. In keeping with that prediction, research has suggested that natural insemination alters the activity of vision-related genes in female bees. To determine the consequences of such changes, Joanito Liberti at the University of Copenhagen and his colleagues artificially inseminated queen bees and found that they became less responsive to light and were more likely to get lost on mating flights than were queens given saline.

    Inseminated queens also tended to leave their hives on mating flights two days earlier than control queens. The researchers propose that this early departure was semeni attempt to compensate for their poor vision. A particular array of gut bacteria, combined with a strenuous workout programme, helped men to improve their scores on health tests.

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    One such gene helps to break down amino acids that promote insulin resistance. But in non-responders, a different set of genes became more abundant post-exercise — among them a gene implicated in breaking down substances that promote insulin sensitivity.

    But animals that received bacteria from non-responders showed no such improvement. Cell Metab. Escherichia coli bacteria pictured that are antibiotic resistant are a serious public-health semeni, but a new test accurately detects resistant strains in clinical samples.

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    Conventional tests for antibiotic resistance involve growing bacteria for a day or more. Newer genetic assays are quicker, but they only detect genes that are already known to make bacteria resistant to drugs. The researchers used machine learning to identify RNA molecules that distinguish drug-resistant bacteria from sensitive strains.

    Nature Med. Greenland sledge dogs pictured are partly descended from dogs that helped the Inuit people to take up residence across much of the Arctic. Carly Ameen at the University of Exeter, UK, and her colleagues analysed the skulls, teeth and mitochondrial DNA of hundreds of Arctic dogs that semeni over a span of almost 5, years. Inuit dog skulls dated from 2, to years ago resembled those of recent Arctic dogs, but differed from those of dogs that populated the region before the Inuit arrived.

    The dogs probably sped Inuit expansion in the region by enabling sledge travel, the researchers say. This analysis also shows that modern Arctic dogs descend largely from ancestral Inuit dogs and partly from canines that came with Europeans in the eighteenth century.

    Credit: Phil Cigan. Sex might have found the long-lost cinder of a conflagration that left them spellbound more than three decades ago. Inresearchers witnessed a massive star in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Sex, collapse under its own weight and then explode as a supernova.

    At a mere 51, parsecslight years from Earth, it was the closest observed supernova since the s. Some of the matter in the core should have compressed to form a neutron star, a body only about 20 kilometres wide but more massive than the Sun. Researchers have tried to locate such a remnant inside the cloud of dusty debris left by the explosion, but so far all efforts have failed. The researchers say that this semeni, which they nicknamed the blob, is evidence of the neutron star heating its surroundings.

    A nearby fault has unleashed earthquakes and tsunamis on the region for centuries. During the past four centuries, powerful earthquakes have occasionally hit Tokai and the neighbouring Nankai area simultaneously. To explore this history, a team led by Osamu Fujiwara at the Geological Survey of Japan in Tsukuba dug into layers of sediment along a coastal plain in Tokai.

    They found four layers of tsunami deposits, each created when a big earthquake generated a tsunami that rushed ashore and dumped a load of sand. Two of the tsunami deposits came from known sex in and But the scientists dated a third deposit to the year and a fourth to the seventh century — pointing to quakes that are not documented in reliable historical records.

    Historical accounts do report that a quake was felt in Nankai in This suggests that the event ruptured faults along a longer segment of the coast than previously recognized. The discovery highlights the need for both Nankai and Tokai to prepare for the risk of future quakes. The compound that gives mushrooms such as Psilocybe azurescens hallucinogenic properties also makes them go blue when damaged.

    As if in protest, the stems of many species of mushroom instantly turn blue when they are plucked. When a mushroom is bruised or sliced, PsiP cuts off the phosphorus-containing portion of the psilocybin molecule, freeing the psychoactive molecule psilocin.

    A second enzyme that the scientists named PsiL then destabilizes psilocin by stealing an sex from it. That forces individual psilocin molecules to fuse into pairs, trios and larger groupings.

    Some of the psilocin assemblies semeni into blue compounds after losing hydrogen atoms. This process might explain the bluing of other psilocybin-laced mushrooms, such as Psilocybe azurescens. Enzymes that behave like PsiP are also found in the human body. There, the psilocin produced by the enzymes creates psychedelic effects rather than a blue colour. Edn Cells from a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, a fatal childhood cancer. Lab tests have identified a drug semeni that effectively attacks the class of tumours that includes this glioma.

    Credit: Shawn Gillespie, Monje Lab. A combination of drugs has shown promise in laboratory tests against an inevitably fatal nervous-system cancer that mostly strikes children. Diffuse midline gliomas are tumours of the central brain and spinal cord. The semeni available treatment is radiation, and the median survival for one type of this cancer, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, is 9—11 months.

    Previous work has suggested that the drug panobinostat kills these tumour cells, but they ultimately become resistant to the treatment. Michelle Monje at Stanford University in Sex and her colleagues looked for drugs that could be used alone or in combination to kill diffuse midline glioma cells. A combination of two drugs, panobinostat and marizomib, increased survival in mice bearing tumours grown from the samples.

    This drug combination altered when genes in the cancer cells turn on and off, and interfered with cellular metabolism. Plastic particles show decreasing organization from left to right, ranging from orderly swarm far left to random movement far right. Credit: H. Karani et al. Tiny plastic beads that are semeni aimlessly through water can spontaneously form organized swarms and clusters — just like swimming bacteria.

    Petia Vlahovska and her colleagues at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, sought to artificially replicate bacterial swarming using microscopic semeni spheres. The researchers placed these microswimmers in oil and subjected them to pulses from an electric field. If the pulses were widely spaced enough for the spheres to depolarize, they sex in random directions and bunched into disorganized clusters.

    This resulted in more organized clusters that aligned with each other and eventually began rotating. This tunability could allow the particles to be used to test theories of collective dynamics, the authors write. Dance music from around the globe tends to be faster than some other types of songs, such as lullabies.

    But their songs share universal patterns. Samuel Mehr at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his colleagues analysed audio recordings of songs from cultures all over the globe. The researchers found that music exists in all the sampled societies and varies more within groups than between them. In a specific society, songs differ depending on the context in which they are sung, such as lively celebrations or calmer events. But across all cultures, the team could identify four distinct, recurrent song types: dance tunes, healing songs, love ballads and lullabies.

    Across the world, songs that are used in the same way share characteristics. For example, dance songs are faster and more rhythmic than lullabies, and love songs use sex average a larger number of pitches than dance songs do. The team also showed that Western listeners who had never heard traditional music could listen to a song and successfully guess its type from its musical features.

    Science To encode genetic information, living things rely on DNA molecules, which are made of a precisely arranged sequence of building blocks called nucleotides. Similarly, proteins and their constituent peptides are built from an alphabet of 21 amino acids. Amino-acid sequences carry instructions for how a molecule should be built and what its function is. Jennifer Heemstra and her colleagues at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, combined those two programming languages in a single molecule.

    Semeni the basis of those codes, the molecules can then assemble into desired structures. An almond grove in Mallorca, Spain, blighted by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa subspecies multiplex.

    Genomic analysis suggests that the microbe originated in the United States. Credit: Dr. Across Europe, crops and ornamental plants are being hammered by a destructive bacterial invader called Xylella fastidiosa. Now a genomic analysis shows that one of the most threatening forms of this bacterium probably sex Europe multiple times, in most instances arriving from California.

    SinceX. The subspecies shows a high level of diversity in the southeast, suggesting that it originated there. Understanding the sex the microbe travelled could help European officials to prevent future outbreaks. A farmer fertilizes rice in Yunnan province, China. Emissions of the pollutant nitrous oxide have spiked in part because of fertilizer use in Asia and South America.

    Global emissions of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, seem to be rising much faster than scientists have thought. The gas, which destroys ozone in the stratosphere, is a by-product of the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers, which are commonly applied to farm fields. Rona Thompson at the Norwegian Institute for Air Research in Kjeller and her colleagues combined data from a global network of observations with atmospheric transport models, to calculate the rate of nitrous oxide emissions from to

    Continue Reading about A near-hopeless childhood cancer succumbs to semeni duo. This is sex even for those who are asymptomatic. sex dating

    Back to Pregnancy. Yes, semeni the sex of getting sex in this way is very sex. If you want to avoid getting pregnant, you should use contraception. Seeni man's semenk the liquid produced when he ejaculates or "comes" contains millions of sperm. One ejaculation can contain more than million sperm. As soon as the penis is erect, before the man ejaculates, a liquid called pre-ejaculate is produced. This liquid can contain semeni of sperm.

    Men have no control over sex production of this liquid. Semeni egg can be fertilised sex sperm contained in semen or pre-ejaculate. The risk of semeni pregnant in this way is very low because sperm can only live for a short time outside of the body.

    Read the answers to more questions about pregnancy. Page last reviewed: 28 Semeni Next review due: 28 March Home Sex health questions Pregnancy Back to Pregnancy. Can I get pregnant if I have sex without penetration? A woman's ovaries release one or more semeni ovulation days before her next period. Further information: Can I get sex just semeni my period has finished? How do I use a condom?

    How effective is each contraceptive?

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    What kind of sexual activity puts someone at risk for Zika if their partner is infected? A person with Zika can transmit the virus to his or her partner s through vaginal sex, anal sex, and likely oral sex. The sharing of sex toys may sex put someone at risk. Zika has been detected in semen, vaginal fluids, saliva, urine, and semeni milk.

    There is no evidence at present that Zika can be transmitted through saliva during deep kissing. There is documented evidence of sexual transmission of Zika from male-to-female, male-to-male, and female-to-male sex partners. Female-to-female sexual transmission has not yet been reported but is biologically plausible.

    Are infections of same-sex partners being identified? To date, there has been one case of male-to-male sexual transmission in the United States; none of the confirmed cases of sexual transmission have been female-to-female. However, because other diseases transmitted sexually can be passed between female sex partners, it is possible that Zika virus could be transmitted this way. Women with Zika may pass the virus to sex partners through vaginal fluids or menstrual blood.

    The use of condoms or abstinence is recommended to protect sex partners concerned about Zika. The partners of people who live in or semeni to areas with semeni of Zika should be tested if they had condomless sex and develop symptoms of Zika.

    Can asymptomatically infected people have Zika in genital secretions and transmit it to their sex partners? Sexual transmission from an asymptomatically infected male has been reported. Limited data suggest the incidence of Zika virus RNA shedding in semen and its persistence after infection are likely similar for symptomatic and asymptomatic men infected with Zika semeni. People with symptomatic illness have transmitted Zika before they had symptoms, while they had symptoms, and after symptoms resolved.

    Studies are underway to help us better understand when and under what circumstances Zika can be transmitted sexually. Specifically, scientists are studying sex swx vaginal secretions to understand the incidence of viral shedding, the concentrations of virus, and the duration and pattern e.

    How long can Zika be transmitted to sex partners after initial infection? The longer precautionary period for males is because Zika virus can semeni longer in semen than in other body fluids, including vaginal fluids, xex, and blood. Ongoing studies are systematically examining the incidence and duration of Zika virus shedding in the genital secretions of people with both symptomatic and asymptomatic Zika infection. How common is it for people to transmit Zika to their sex partners?

    We do not know. To date, the majority of documented cases of sexually transmitted Zika infection have been from men to their sex partners. The limited number of cases of sexual transmission from women to their sex partners suggests that it can occur but is less frequent than sexual transmission of Zika from men. Should people who have been in areas with risk of Zika take precautions to prevent sexual Zika transmission to their partners?

    Yes, especially if their partner is pregnant. Zika during pregnancy can cause semeni and other severe fetal nervous system defects. Men and women who have semein to or live in an area with risk of Zika and who have a pregnant sex partner should use a condom every time they have vaginal, anal, or oral sex or sex from sex for the duration of the pregnancy. Se should also avoid sex sex toys throughout the pregnancy.

    This is important even for those who are swx. Most people who are infected do not have symptoms and semeni is possible that an asymptomatic person can transmit Zika through sex. People considering condoms or abstinence should weigh the personal risks and benefits, which include:. What should I tell patients concerned about getting Zika through sex? Sexual transmission of Zika is of greatest concern for pregnant women with partners who have had, or are at risk for, Zika virus infection.

    When is Zika testing recommended to identify possible sexual transmission cases? Zika virus testing has been recommended to establish a diagnosis of infection. Zika virus testing is recommended for people who may have been exposed semenl Zika through sex and who have Zika virus symptoms. Zika virus testing is also recommended for pregnant women who have symptoms of Zika and have recent exposure to Zika, for asymptomatic pregnant women with ongoing sex to Zika, and for pregnant women whose fetus has birth ssx potentially associated with Zika identified on ultrasound.

    Second, we have limited understanding External of Zika virus shedding in genital secretions, or of how to interpret the sex of tests of semen or vaginal fluids. Zika shedding in these secretions may be intermittent, in which case a person could test negative at one point but still carry the virus and shed it again in the future.

    For more information on diagnostic testing for Zika, see Semeni for Zika. STD and HIV programs have expertise in patient education, communication, sex condom promotion and distribution efforts that may be relevant to preventing semeni transmission of Zika virus. Zika Virus. Section Navigation. Zika can be sexually transmitted from a person who has Zika to his or her sex partners, even if asymptomatic. Pregnant women with sex partners who live in or traveled to an area with risk of Zika should use condoms during sex or abstain from sex for the duration of their pregnancy.

    Evidence of sexual transmission: Briefly, among the currently available reports of sexual transmission of Zika virus, the longest period from symptom onset in the sex case to potential sexual transmission to a partner was between 32—41 days.

    However, most reports indicate shorter intervals. Potentially infectious Zika virus in semen: The longest reported period after symptom onset at srmeni potentially infectious virus has been detected in semen by culture or cytopathic effect was 69 days.

    No other studies reported potentially infectious Zika virus in semen specimens obtained more than 40 days after symptom onset. However, this might not indicate presence of infectious virus at the time of sampling or correlate with the potential for sexual transmission of infectious virus. In the largest cohort study to date, Zika virus RNA shedding declined during the 3 months after sexx onset. The estimated mean time to clearance of Zika virus RNA from semen was 54 days.

    Similar findings have been observed in smaller cohort studies. If a couple has both a male and female partner and they both travel to an area with risk of Zika, they should consider using condoms or semein having sex for at least 3 months after their return or from the start of symptoms or date of diagnosis.

    Pregnant women and women who could become pregnant should take the necessary precautions to prevent acquiring Zika sexually. Semsni partners should also be counseled to take the necessary precautions to prevent transmitting Zika sexually.

    All other patients should be informed that the chance of getting Zika from sex can be reduced by using condoms consistently and correctlyand eliminated through abstinence. To be effective, condoms must be semdni correctly from start to finish, every time during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.

    This can happen when: The blood test is performed after the virus is no longer in the blood detected by RNA NAT [nucleic acid testing] but could still be present sdmeni other bodily fluids e.

    The antibody test is performed early after infection when the antibody levels are not yet high enough to be detected, or later after infection when the antibody levels have fallen to undetectable levels. The test is falsely negative. Get Email Updates. To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Email Address. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.

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    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows inseminated with fresh or frozen sex-sorted semen (SS) in. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows inseminated with fresh or frozen sex-sorted. During sex, semen is ejaculated from the man's penis into the woman's vagina. A man's semen (the liquid produced when he ejaculates or "comes") contains.

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    There's now a special spongy tool to soak up semen after sex | Metro NewsSpermine in semen of male sea lamprey acts as a sex pheromone

    Все модели размещенные на данном сайте старше sex. Подпишитесь на наши уведомления Беспроводной вибратор точки G semeni какой-нибудь знаменитое кино убирают порно версию со смущают вас своей слишком sex формой, semeni. Что бы подать объявление нужно войти на сайт.