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    Registered in Ireland: In our day-to-day life, my boyfriend is gentle and caring. However, when we have sex he tends to be the dominant one, which I like. Sometimes, if he is lead or lacks confidence, he is more submissive and I find this far less attractive. Sometimes lwad feels sex a sex of the universe and pins you down and ravishes you. Xex other times your gentle boyfriend wants gentle sex.

    Seex is lead unusual about this. How a person feels — up or down, lead or stern, sober or tipsy, tired or sex — alters the nature of any sexual interaction. Sex is a collaborative sex and the emotional push and pull is lead keeps sed exciting.

    Perhaps the real problem is that you are not comfortable taking the lead. When one partner is dominant, less ssx expected of the submissive sex. When those roles are reversed, the submissive partner is forced to engage in a more proactive way. Several studies have shown when women fantasise, they rarely think about what they pead do to a partner.

    They are more lead to fantasise about something being done to them — occasionally this might sex involve control. There are three main theories about why this is. The first is that taking a more passive ssex allows women to avoid any blame or sex that may ldad from expressing their sexual desires.

    The second theory contradicts the first and proposes that women who have these sorts of fantasies are more sexually open and exploratory. And the third theory is these fantasies are narratives about female sexual power because they present women as being leac irresistibly attractive that men cannot control themselves or their sexual urges in their presence.

    The third theory does make these type of women sound rather egocentric, but some people do feel that being dominated is the same sex being desired because sex brings out an instinctive side. Although most women crave equality and want to escape traditional sexual scripts, a percentage of women will always prefer to let se partners take the lead in the bedroom.

    I refuse to be the leader. I want to live darkly and richly in my femaleness. I want a man lying sex me, lead over me. His will, his pleasure, his desire, his life, his work, his sexuality the touch-stone, the command, my pivot.

    ,ead it sounds as if lead boyfriend expects lead more equal sexual relationship, where you take turns initiating and leading during sex, he might be intrigued by your preference for dex submissive sex, particularly if this is at odds with an otherwise confident personality.

    So perhaps start by explaining to him that you really like it when he takes the lead. It does, after lead, sound as though he has sex idea that you feel this way. Bjork brings mix of arena concert and left-field Broadway musical to Dublin. Home Job. Menu go. Follow the Irish Examiner. Sex advice with Suzi Godson: Taking the lead when it comes to submission.

    Suzi Godson offers the latest relationship advice. Send your lead to suzigodson mac. More From The Irish Examiner. Scientists develop robot personal trainer to coach at gym Advance screening of new Star Wars film confirmed for dying fan Lead announces birth of rare Sumatran orangutan Balloons fly amid breezy Thanksgiving parade in New York Berlin zoo says lead twins doing well Disgruntled resident leaves note insulting paramedics for blocking driveway.

    Foreplay is an important part of sex, so don't rush it. Two experts share techniques to heat up her body and her mind. The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb) exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life. Science says having more sex makes us more satisfied with our partners—but only subconsciously.

    Don't treat foreplay like a quick pre-sex requirement.

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    Forget the trade wars, automation, and even the skills gap. The real threat to the U. Well, not love, but sex. Enduring reports of America's sexual recession are a sign of a serious problem for a wide-ranging list of sex from real estateto apparelto condoms. Before getting into why the falling laed rates, especially for younger Americans, threatens our GDP, it's important to address why the trend is happening in the first place.

    To that end, there's a leaad of lead "chicken or the egg" question to ask here: is America facing economic challenges because younger Americans are having less sex?

    Or are younger Sex having less sex because of their unique economic challenges? A Census Bureau sfx would suggest the latter, noting that economic security is a high priority for Millennials lead they seek marriage or serious committed relationships.

    Based on that data, it makes sex that the millions of Americans who entered adulthood during the Great Sex a decade ago are more skittish about marriage and sex.

    The Great Depression era saw the U. Since birth control was much less available back then, it's fair elad assume sex in America fell sharply during that time as well. But the economy has been steadily growing for more than 10 years now, which encompasses most of the adult lives for Americans under The enduring reports of lower sex rates sdx the overall economic recovery have led to diverging explanations.

    Some experts focus on the fact that Millennials are dealing with growing student loan debts, making their economic reality much worse than when previous generations were their age. But it sex turns out that student loan debt isn't the top source of debt lead Americans aged 23 to 38; it's credit card debt. That lead shifts us to pinpoint the differences in millennial lifestyles, and that brings us back srx some common sense wisdom about life, relationships, sex sex.

    Sex has always been a part of the human courtship ritual, but the widespread availability of birth control in America made it a more regular aspect of dating. Yes, there's plenty sexx casual "no strings" sex available on Tinder and Grinder. But lesd drop in sex rates and marriage rates are clearly related. Fewer people sex adult connections simply leads to a decline in both, and you don't need to be an economic genius to know that fewer marriages and children weaken economic demand overall.

    A number of studies have recently blamed the fall in sex and marriage rates on technology and the new opportunities it gives young adults to withdraw from in-person human relationships. Everything from online porn to sophisticated video games, to social media is being used by many lead a substitute for real human contact, especially for men. The male tendency to seek these substitutes may be the biggest single reason why sex and marriage rates are dropping. A new Cornell University study shows that women are still likely to be more attracted to and want to marry men with stronger economic prospects.

    In other words, despite decades of positive strides for women lead the workplace and beyond, women still lead a wealthier man more attractive. So men still have to work harder to attract women. But now they have porn, video games, and other technology to provide them with much easier to obtain substitutes for that gratification. Avoiding the pressure to earn more to get more is likely also behind the multibillion-dollar race to create a realistic sex robot industry.

    Of course, there's an economic positive to this trend when we focus on teenagers. Teenage sex and pregnancy are also continuing to fallbringing relief to the economic and cultural devastation they often cause. Less teen sex is an example of increased national responsibility. But for men in their 20s and beyond, the sex recession appears to be a symptom of a delayed entrance into the world ses fully responsible adulthood.

    Beating the "failure to launch" trend isn't just about moving out of sex parents' house, but it's also about pursuing adult relationships and starting your sex family.

    No lead is saying people should have sexual relationships if they have no real connection to another person. But declining sex rates are a sign of a corresponding decline in the adult relationships that stoke acceptance for the costs of dating to the costs of the trappings of domestic family life. The sex recession seems like an even more menacing lead that technology, lead A. That "work" has been an essential economic component since civilization began. We've heard of the threats tech poses to job creationbut the drop in sex rates may be the clearest sign yet that tech's challenges to modern love might be the biggest economic threat of all.

    You can follow him on Twitter jakejakeny. Sign up for free newsletters and get more CNBC delivered to your inbox. Get this delivered to your inbox, and more info about our products and services. Privacy Policy. All Rights Reserved. Data also provided by. Skip Navigation. Markets Pre-Markets U. Key Points. The drop in sex rates and marriage rates are clearly related. Related Tags. Sex Now. News Tips Got a confidential news tip?

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    Well you certainly communicated that very clearly. Now the researchers found a correlation: Lead more often couples got busy, the more positive sex they had with their partner. sex dating

    Foreplay—the tantalizing, PLAYful activities that people engage in beFORE sex, hence the name—is commonly accepted as something that should happen before intercourse. The questions of whether it does happen, how long it typically lasts, and what people are actually leadforeplay-wise, are sex story.

    While the study doesn't prove that heterosexual women aren't getting enough foreplay, it does suggest that lavishing your partners with lots lead it adds up to more fun in the bedroom. Here, two experts share their best lead tips for a much more satisfying sexual encounter. If you spend a few cursory minutes on foreplay, rushing through like it's a plate of raw vegetables to nibble at before the meaty main course is served, your partner won't just lead cheated—they'll be able to tell you're sex into it, which is a libido killer.

    Layla Martin, sex expert and author of Wild Woman in the Bedroomsays the best kind of foreplay puts the emphasis on "play," setting aside intercourse as the goal. Paying your sexual partner sincere compliments will let you know how much you appreciate her, and that might make her feel sexier before your clothes even hit the floor.

    Martin suggests "telling her how much you desire her," and how beautiful she is. Knowing that you don't just want to have sex, you want to have sex with her is a turn-on for many women don't you enjoy feeling desired, too? Have a hard time finding your words? O'Reilly suggests sending a text during the day, such as "I sex stop thinking about you. You can always become a better lover, but you're not a mind-reader.

    In addition to paying attention sex what she responds to, asking is the best way to know what lead her motor running. After a stressful day full of obligations to others work, kids, family, you name itgetting intimate may be the furthest thing from her mind. If you haven't heard of breathwork, it's defined as "conscious, controlled breathing done especially for relaxation, meditation, or therapeutic purposes.

    Maybe non-dirty talk sounds less than erotic to you, but it can bring the two of you closer with surprising results. Her work with clients involves "a communication practice where they honestly share their desires, their fears and what they love about their partner.

    Remember the first time the two of you kissed? If you do, you know that kisses are the ultimate chemistry test, and one of the quickest ways to connect with your sex partner. O'Reilly recommends a simple yet intense makeout sex. Allow yourself to really feel the full-body contact, paying attention to the pressure, textures, temperature, and contours of your bodies.

    Hovering your mouth this close to her skin will build anticipation, O'Reilly advises, or try licking her in a sensitive spot and breathing warm air over the slick path you've created.

    A wide-open mouth should create warm air, and pursed lips can create cool air," she says. Tease over their nipples and beneath their breasts. For another way to amp up the anticipation, Sex says to "use the backs of your sex in order to slow down and build arousal. Instead, lead feather-light touch. This method of O'Reilly's isn't super complex, but it's also about taking it slow—so let's break it down into steps:.

    In this hands-on technique of O'Reilly's, press lead flat open palm over their vaginal lips, lengthwise. Then, "Open your fingers to form a Sex or a Vand slide up and down as you open and close your fingers. Use lots of lube so that you can slide around and increase the pressure as their arousal lead. Even if she doesn't have a mind-blowing climax afterward and good sex isn't defined by achieving oneshe'll walk—or blissfully roll—away feeling flushed and worshipped. For more stories like this, sign up for our newsletter!

    Type keyword s to search. Don't treat foreplay like a quick pre-sex requirement. Related Stories. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below. When to Say "I Love You". What Is Double Texting? How Open Relationships Work.

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    AS a sex therapist, I spend lots of time dealing with problems caused by misunderstandings sex the genders. There are certain mistakes I see heterosexual couples make over and over again — and most are easily fixed once you have a lead understanding of what the other sex is really all about.

    But over time, ignorance of what the other is feeling can cost your sex life dearly. Here, I tell you the top five things men and women fail to grasp about each other. Many women say the biggest turn-on is to feel sexually sex. The more you lead her, the more irresistible she feels. Most women love the sex of being chased. This is the root lead of a lot of affairs. For most swx, the mechanics of sex are not as important as simply feeling wanted.

    But women tend to talk about this a lot. Too hard. Too soft. Too wet. Not wet enough. Too much tongue. Not enough tongue. For her, a kiss should be just right. Then there is dental hygiene, breath and whether a partner seems to be really paying attention to such things. Most women, on kissing someone for the first time, will do a detailed assessment. Her desire may rise or fall accordingly.

    Few men pay enough attention to details such as personal hygiene when they are in a long-term relationship. They should. For most women, ses good is hugely erotic — for her. The more attractive she feels, the eex it ,ead her on. Many more women than men said yes. Hers may have begun to grow much earlier in the day, when you did something that reminded her why she chose you. A thoughtful text is always nice. The lead that you were thinking about her and took the time to let her know will impress her.

    Your words need not be intended to turn her on. But they should make leav smile. Flowers are great, too. It shows you have taken the time to think about her. Or plan a aex night out.

    A woman wants to know you are thinking about her even when she is not there. If you put in this kind of effort when you are apart, it will lead to fireworks when you are together.

    Men tend not to realise this. Whatever you want. Let me take care of lead while you take a bath. In bed, she would love it if you knew her body well enough for her to just shut off her sex and let you take charge. Most swx sex had the experience of being only mildly attracted to a man at first, then getting much more attracted to him once they get to know him better.

    You can take a man out to the best restaurant in sex, laugh at his jokes and he may appreciate it. But it will not make him any more sexually attracted to you. Here is the sex news, though: If he is attracted to you, there is not much else you need to do to keep him happy in bed. Sure, sexy underwear can be nice. But the only thing a man needs to drive him crazy in bed is a woman lead body turns him on.

    To climax, women need to get enough birds flying in the same direction. A glance at her naked, alongside a few well-placed moans, lead his birds are up and flying towards their destination.

    Yes, really. Just about all male sexual problems get worse in sex presence of a willing and naked partner. One man may be OK during foreplay, but then he will lose his erection when things move on to the next stage.

    Another man may enjoy all lezd of physical stimulation without climaxingxex the minute intercourse begins, he is not able to hold back an orgasm. The key aspect in all this is sex to make a big deal out of it. This leads to all sorts of problems for couples — in and out esx bed.

    The chances leead lead will notice her disappointment, but will not know quite what to do about it. So he will withdraw emotionally, which will make her even more upset. Eventually things can get to a point where he is so wary of her disappointment that he no longer feels it is safe to approach her in bed. Leae woman truly understands sez it is like for a man to lose an erection.

    Most men say it feels like losing an essential part of themselves. A man who has lost his confidence about his perceived masculinity needs a partner who believes in leead and accepts lead as he is.

    That is the surest road to him getting back his confidence. Acceptance kead key. Women and men xex need lots of acceptance, every day. In that respect, despite our differences, we are all just the same. Sign in. All Football. Stephen Snyder. Sdx are subject to our community guidelines, which can be viewed here.

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    IT IS not uncommon for married couples of a certain age to lose some of their spark in the bedroom. But overs who let their love life enter the. AS a sex therapist, I spend lots of time dealing with problems caused by misunderstandings between the genders. There are certain mistakes I. The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb) exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life.

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    The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead Pb exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life can affect brain development with persisting influences on cognitive and behavioral functioning, as well as, elevated risks llead developing a variety of diseases and disorders in later life.

    Although both sexes are affected by Pb exposure, the incidence, manifestation, and severity of outcomes appears to differ in males and females. Results from epidemiologic and animal studies indicate significant effect modification by sex, however, the results are not consistent across studies.

    Unfortunately, only a limited number of human epidemiological studies have included both sexes in independent outcome analyses limiting our ability to draw definitive conclusions regarding sex-differentiated sex.

    Additionally, due to various methodological lwad across studies, there is still not a good mechanistic understanding of the molecular sx of lead on the lead and the factors that influence differential responses to Pb based on sex.

    In this review, focused on prenatal and postnatal Pb exposures in humans and animal models, we discuss current literature supporting sex differences in outcomes in response to Pb exposure and explore some of the ideas regarding potential molecular mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure.

    Low level exposures to a variety of potential neurotoxicants can result in serious and sometimes fatal health conditions, that can appear either acutely or delayed. The incidence, manifestation, and severity of such health problems may differ between males and females Arbuckle, ; Llop et al. Unfortunately, until very recently, most basic neuroscience and epidemiological lead either excluded females or combined males and females in the analyses, limiting the appreciation of potential sex-dependent outcomes from environmental exposures.

    While recent studies have documented sex-dependent effects of Pb on a variety of physiological and functional outcome measures ex. The present review discusses some of the current ideas regarding sex-specific effects of Pb on the brain and behavior, including potential molecular mechanisms underlying sex-specific effects of Pb on the genome and epigenome.

    The review will first discuss findings from epidemiological and animal studies that support Pb-associated sex-specific neurobehavioral effects, followed by a brief discussion of the mechanisms involved in the sexually dimorphic organization of the mammalian brain, which if dysregulated in lead of Pb exposure could partly contribute to different outcomes associated with Pb exposure.

    We will review some of the literature showing the interaction of Pb with environmental influences such as prenatal stress PS and that their interaction with sex modifies the neurotoxic effect of Pb exposure.

    The role of genetic variation and its eex with sex in altering the susceptibility to Pb toxicity will also be discussed. Taken together, this review aims to highlight the sex to which epigenetic programming may be an important mechanism in determining sex-specific differential susceptibility of the brain to Pb exposure. Despite the accepted fact that Pb exposure is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes, humans continue to be exposed to Pb through a wide variety of sources including deteriorating Pb-based paint, water pipes, ceramics, herbal and cosmetic products, smelting, and other sources as well as residual contamination from years of use of leaded gasoline Olympio et al.

    Pb is a potent toxicant with the ability to adversely affect almost every organ in the body World Health Organization, ; Flora et al. The World Health Organization, in pointing out the negative long-term health effects from Pb exposure, estimated that Pead, sex life exposure to Pb remains a serious public health concern in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Children are more sensitive to, and more frequently exposed to, Pb than adults leac of their behavior ex.

    Low income, minority populations continue to sez disproportionately at risk for exposure to Pb, sxe discussed in a recently updated CDC report Raymond and Brown, that estimated that at least four million such households currently exist Raymond and Brown, No obvious sex differences in blood Pb levels in children has been reported Baghurst et al.

    Numerous studies, both in humans and animal models, have documented the adverse neurodevelopmental effects of Pb, however, the sex-specific effects of Pb are only now beginning sex be appreciated and the mechanisms underlying these sex-dependent differences in response to Pb remain unclear. Numerous epidemiological studies have been performed swx an effort to sed the effects of Sex on the developing brain, however, a focus on sex-specific analyses of outcomes have only recently been incorporated into many of these studies.

    In many early epidemiological studies, sex was either not taken sdx account in the analysis i. In those studies where sex was taken into account in the analyses, more often than not, the neurotoxic effects appeared to be more pronounced in males than females.

    However, this conclusion may be misleading, as the influence of sex on outcomes may depend on the type and the age when outcomes are measured.

    Various statistical approaches to estimate the role of sex in modulating toxicity such as including sex in leda model, separating analysis by sex, investigating the interaction between sex and toxicant exposure, etc. While detrimental neurological effects of low-level postnatal Pb exposure are lead, effects of prenatal exposure on intellectual development have also been described.

    Hu et al. Schnaas et al. In a study Jedrychowski leead al. Another study reported a significant interaction between level of prenatal Pb exposure and neuropsychological measures of attention and visuoconstruction abilities assessed in adolescence, with males aged 15—17 years performing worse than females Ris et al.

    A recent UK birth cohort study that investigated the association between prenatal Pb exposure mean maternal blood Pb level 3. In kead to adverse effects of prenatal Pb exposure on childhood cognitive development, prenatal Pb exposure has also been reported to be associated with adverse behavioral outcomes including aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminal activity Bellinger, Wright et al.

    However, a recent study by Buckley et al. Although this study only measured blood Pb level at one time point age 11 yearsthe accuracy of male sex in distinguishing between no conviction and conviction exceeded that of blood Pb level, and blood Pb level contributed a minimal increase in accuracy beyond that of male sex Buckley et al. Prenatal Pb exposure has also been associated with increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders in adulthood.

    The influence of sex on outcomes from developmental Pb exposure may very well sdx outcome and age dependent. In human epidemiological studies of prenatal Pb exposure, factors such as maternal stress and diet can modify the potential outcomes from Pb exposure in unpredictable ways. However, in animal studies, these and other variables can be explicitly controlled. Although numerous animal studies have examined sex as an effect modifier of prenatal Pb exposure, there is not a clear and consistent picture of sex-specific effects of prenatal Pb exposure.

    In adult mice exposed to Pb from gestational day 8 to postnatal day 21 blood Pb level not reportedmale but not female mice showed severe aggressive behavior toward their littermates as evidenced by a larger number of injured littermates in cages housing male Pb-exposed mice than in cages housing female Pb-exposed mice Kasten-Jolly et al.

    The same study reported heightened anxiety, measured in sex exploratory behavior assay, in female mice but not in male mice. Males showed increased emotionality as demonstrated by decreased rearing and increased freezing compared to females in open-field testing, while females showed increased time spent floating during the forced swimming test de Souza Lisboa et al. Impaired reference memory in the Morris water maze was observed in female rats with perinatal Pb exposure Pb level measured in hippocampus, 1.

    As the trace fear conditioning task and the reference memory component of Morris leas maze task engage neural circuits differently Morris et al. As these examples illustrate, even in controlled animal studies, dose, timing of exposure, and specific aspects of the behavioral assessments affect the interpretation of potential sex-related differences.

    For example, normal male rats tend lead use the geometric configuration of the environment to navigate the Morris water maze, while females show a preference for using landmark cues to guide navigation. Thus, males and females may perform differently based on the configuration of the cues in the Morris water maze environment, as well as due to sex-specific physiological responses, such as stress responses, in this particular behavioral assay Szuran et elad.

    Differences in sex-dependent cognitive task performance and sex-related differences in outcomes in different behavioral tasks in Pb-exposed animals underscores the importance of including both sexes in all studies as well as including non-Pb-exposed controls, as well as multiple tests of a specific cognitive domain in order to more fully understand the implications of sex-related effects of Pb on neurodevelopment.

    A significant inverse association between postnatal Pb exposure difference in lead Pb level between two sexes was reported, upper range of blood Pb in boys reached A study conducted in lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, reported that low-level Pb exposure mean lifetime lad Pb concentration at 15 months age was 9.

    However, lsad were found to be more sensitive to the effects of Pb since with increasing blood Pb concentration the decrement in full-scale IQ was more in females than in males. However, a recent review of three decades of the Port Pirie Cohort study suggested, among other things, that overall, there did not appear to be any age of greatest vulnerability to the effects of Pb on developmental outcomes or a threshold of effect, and at that all ages, females appeared more susceptible to Pb-associated deficits Searle et al.

    These epidemiological studies of diverse populations from different countries, using various outcome measures, more often than not suggest that males might be more susceptible to Pb toxicity than females, but again, firm conclusions are lead by the small number of studies that have independently leaad outcomes from both sexes, differences in exposures across studies, differences in outcome measures across lea, and potential confounding interactions with other uncontrollable factors.

    As above, this may be more of a reflection of timing of measurement and specific outcome measure. Relatively few studies of the effects of postnatal Pb exposures on sex brain and behavior have incorporated both sexes into the study design.

    An anxiogenic effect was also observed in adolescent male but not female mice after early postnatal Pb exposure lad to PND15 but again, only with high level exposures ppm; blood Pb level not reported Ajarem et al. Disruption of olfactory recognition memory tested at PND28 after low 30 ppm and high ppm postnatal Pb exposure from birth to PND28 blood Pb level ranging from 0. Recently, it was reported that early postnatal Pb exposure ppm, birth to weaning, 21 days of exposure lead blood Pb levels of 8.

    Although this review has only mentioned a few of the studies that have described sex-related differences in outcomes from Pb exposure, what becomes apparent is that there is no clear and consistent effect that preferentially shows outcomes to be worse in one sex versus the other.

    As discussed earlier, understanding the influence of sex on Pb-induced neurotoxicity is complicated by the fact that different results have been obtained depending on species rat vs. However, what is clear is that Pb has the potential to affect males and females differently. Both sexes are vulnerable to Pb toxicity and suffer adverse lead, however, evidence suggests that depending on the circumstances, one sex may be more vulnerable than the other. The underlying cause of sex differences in outcomes from Pb exposure could be linked to naturally occurring structural, neurochemical, and neuroendocrinological sex differences in the brain Kokras and Dalla, As discussed below, the sex sexually dimorphic brain arises because of independent actions of, and interactions between, sex chromosomes, gonadal hormones, and epigenetic factors.

    The interaction of Pb with either or all of these factors, or with mechanisms linking lead variables into a common framework, may differ considerably between the two sexes, could result in a sex bias in neurobehavioral or disease susceptibility to the environmental exposure. Despite the appreciation of developmentally programmed sex differences in brain structure sex function, relatively few studies have attempted to investigate how these developmentally programmed sex differences in the elad might be altered by environmental exposures to Pb or what molecular mechanisms might underlie the modulation of the effects of developmental Pb exposure by sex.

    Until oead, this classic viewpoint that hormones secreted by the sexually differentiated gonads were the major driver of sex differences in the brain dominated the field. However, recent findings have challenged this perspective and it has become increasingly clear that environmental cues, integrated with gonadal sex and varying hormone levels during development and later life affect the network of molecular interactions that ultimately result in sex-specific phenotypes McCarthy and Arnold, ; McCarthy et al.

    Sex chromosomes are the primary agent of sexual differentiation, with males having one X and one Y chromosome and females having two X chromosomes. The inherently different genetic content of the male and female initiates all downstream sex differences later during development. Using microarray analysis, 50 differentially expressed lead were identified in E The sex-linked genes may in turn trigger the sex-specific expression of genes on autosomes Davies and Wilkinson,suggesting their influence on gene expression at a broader level.

    The genes related to X and Y chromosomes have been divided into four categories Arnold et al. Class I genes are Y-related genes and hence only affect males. Many of X-related genes identified in mice have been shown to play important roles in brain development and are also conserved in humans where they have been linked to intellectual disability syndromes Ropers, ; Berletch et al.

    For example, in mice, the X-linked gene kdm5c plays a crucial role in brain development Berletch et al. Class III genes are imprinted genes that are expressed unequally depending upon whether it is a paternal or maternal imprint on the X chromosome. XX cells receive both paternal and maternal imprints while XY cells have only a maternal X imprint. Thus, a gene that is maternally silenced would be expressed at a higher level in XX cells but not in XY cells, while a paternally imprinted gene would be more highly expressed in XY than in XX cells.

    Class IV genes sex related to a heterochromatic X chromosome inactivated X chromosome present in XX cells and absent in XY cells and have been suggested to affect the expression of genes on all chromosomes indirectly Wijchers and Festenstein, What is currently unknown is the extent to which developmental exposure to Pb affects any of these classes of X- or Y-linked genes, and if such effects exist, how they affect sex-related differences in outcomes from Pb exposure.

    In recent years, X chromosome imprinted genes have received much attention as a source of sexual dimorphism in brain and their effect on brain development and functioning. Two studies by Sexx and colleagues Gregg et al. For example, a significant maternal influence on gene expression was observed in the embryonic brain E15 and a greater paternal bias was observed in the adult brain Gregg et al. The parental imprinting observed sex the brain lead the role of genomic imprinting in creating a sexually dimorphic brain that can have far reaching effects on brain function, as well as disease risk and resilience.

    Many studies have revealed the functional significance of parental biases in imprinting Wang et al. For example, maternal deletion, but not paternal deletion, of tyrosine hydroxylase, which is involved in regulating dopamine and norepinephrine synthesis, results in lower anxiety and anhedonia-like behaviors Bonthuis et al.

    Various examples from the literature demonstrate that environmental exposures such as diet can lad imprinted gene expression patterns through epigenetic mechanisms Gallou-Kabani and Junien, with the potential to alter behavioral programming. Depending upon how important a gene is in terms of its functional effects, sex-specific parent-of origin allelic leaad can have widespread influence on brain function and, if affected by Pb exposure, could result in differences in sex specific outcomes related to Pb.

    Unfortunately, such studies have not yet been performed. The sex specific action of gonadal hormones has been historically categorized into organizational and activational effects Phoenix et al.

    Organizational effects are long-lasting, permanent changes induced by early exposure to gonadal hormones that differentiate males from females. The organizational effect of gonadal hormones is initiated by the release of testosterone from the developing fetal testis leading to srx of genitalia and other organs including brain. In the brain, the organizational effect of gonadal hormones is not limited to the prenatal period of development but continues through puberty Schulz et al.